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WHAT IS TIME? WHAT CAUSES TIME?

Present may be mental awareness of the recording of memory into our brain. A person can go to an event but fall asleep and miss the event completely. So that event basically does not exist in his past. Unless we are consciously aware of an event it does not seem to enter our past memory.

PAST AND FUTURE ARE DURATIONS IN TIME
Unlike the present we see past and future as measurable durations of hour days months and years.
Past historical events, an upcoming meeting, wedding, or other events are all measurable durations or extensions in time, just
like a recorded material on tape, video recordings, and tracks of CD or DVD.
This similarity suggests that past is just a recorded memory, while future is like an unrecorded tape. Future is a projection
created by our past experiences which are stored in our memory.

MEASURING TIME
Be it money, weight, a piece of estate, speed, distance or resistance. We measure by comparison to a standard that we have defined. When we measure a mass we use a standard mass like KG or LB for comparison. Distances we measure using a standard of length like a meter yard or feet. Keeping the above in mind let us think how we measure motion. We use time to measure motion i.e. Feet per second or miles per hour. This provides a hint that when dealing with time we are actually dealing with some standard of motion.
We may have made the concept of time more complicated then what it really is. Measurement of time started early on in human development. There are plenty of clues in every language in the greetings and the meetings. Time of the day is related to the position of sun in the sky or its absence thereof. There is dawn, sunrise, early morning, morning, mid morning, noon, afternoon, late afternoon, evening, sunset, dusk, night and mid night. Then there are years, months, weeks, based on earth’s yearly orbit around the sun and the changing seasons. The use of units like seconds and minutes which are radial angle measurements in geometry points toward the original connection of time measurements to radial motion of astronomical objects across the sky. Once we started using clocks, watches, and then digital time we got completely disconnected from the original method of measurement and time developed a life of its own.
The problem of time may be easy to solve if we go back to the original concept of sun moving across the sky. When we measure the speed of a car, we are just comparing its motion to the motion of the hands of the clock and also indirectly to the fractional motion of sun across the sky. We are not measuring speed with something abstract called time we are just comparing a known motion (of the sun) with an unknown motion of the car.

TIME AS UNIT OF MOTION
In a recent article in Scientific American Craig Callender elegantly compares time with a unit of motion. Time is a way to compare or describe different kinds of motions like speed of light, how fast heart beats or how frequently earth spins around its axis. But these processes could be compared directly without making reference to time. Time may just be common currency or unit of motion making the world easier to describe but having no independent existence. Measuring processes (of motion) with time is like using money rather than barter transactions.
This again suggests that underlying mechanism of time is just presence of motion.

WHAT REALLY IS TIME?
Time is an emergent concept. There is a real phenomenon a continuous change through which we live. To understand time we have to understand the mechanism which brings about this continuous change from which our mind creates the illusion of flow of time.
Time becomes evident through motion and is measured by comparison with other motions. Sunrise sunsets, night and day, the changing seasons, the movement of the celestial bodies are all indicative of continuous change. The aging process is a reminder that molecular motion and interactions are also at work and are a part of time. Other very important aspect of time is presence of motion of particles like photon and motion at atomic level.

A THOUGHT EXPERIMENT
Imagine two objects one moving in orbit around the other in space. Now suppose from our distant observation point of a fixed time we observe time to get slower in the area where these two objects are moving. We expect to see slower motion? We also should observe proportionally weaker gravitational force; otherwise the objects will get pulled together. If we observed faster time, we expect to see faster motion and stronger gravity to
keep the objects from flying apart. While with zero time motion will freeze and gravity will become zero.
The increase or decrease in strength of gravity is only in relation to our fixed time from where we are making the observation. From the point of view (time) of the orbiting objects neither motion nor gravity has changed. As this thought experiment also can be extended to particles held together by electromagnetic forces we can say that time involves both motion and forces.
POSSIBLE DEFINITION OF TIME
Time can be defined from many perspectives. From perception view point time is an emergent concept which our mind creates. Present is the consciousness or awareness of recording of memory into the brain. Past is just a record while future
does not exist. From point of view of physics time is presence of motion and forces in the universe.
Time involves all kinds of motion. The spin of particles and the motion of photons are time dependent. Gravitational force and electromagnetic forces are all part of time. As is the motion of celestial bodies the atoms and all other motion. We have partially understood the phenomenon of time. The next step is to find out what is the source of this motion and forces.

Few accepted concepts:
1. We live in an expanding universe.
2. Mass radiates gravitons which interact with space.
3. Mass produces negative curvature in space.(General Relativity)
4 Time slows in negatively curved space. (General Relativity)
5. Time also slows in moving objects. (Special Relativity)
6. Forces reduce in strength as part of slowing of time. (From the thought experiment)
The above concepts when combined with the following definition of time gives new insight into the laws of the universe:
Time is the presence of motion and forces and is caused by the expansion of space

1. Gravitons radiating from matter (under the influence of expanding space) interact with space to slow its expansion.
2. Slower expansion produces negative curvature in space.
3. Motion is slower and forces are weaker where expansion of space is slower and this is perceived as slower time in gravity.
4. Total amount of motion and forces (i.e. Energy) imparted by expanding space to a mass is a constant (MC^2). Therefore whenvelocity of an object is increased the motion at the atomic level reduces and forces weaken in proportion, which is the observedslowing of time in moving bodies.

VELOCITY AND ENERGY
Energy is the quantitative measure of motion and forces. Energy is another aspect of time and also comes from the expansion of space.
Energy measurement takes into account both motion and forces within an object. Velocity or speed is the qualitative measure of motion.
Velocity measures how fast or slow a motion is compared to another more basic motion like the speed of light while energy takes into account motion as well as forces within a mass
Time is possibly an emergent concept that arises secondary to the presence of motion and forces. It is proposed here that the motion
and forces are due to expansion of the universe. Slower expansion of space around large masses like earth and sun could be considered as the cause of slower time linking time to the expansion of space. Gravity can be explained on basis of tendency of matter composed of billions of particles orbiting at tremendous velocities to move from faster to slower time when placed in a time differential. This explains why gravity is
always attractive. This new approach towards understanding time eliminates the infinite gravity or singularity of black holes. It also shows us that not only gravity of large masses but motion of objects also can curve space which leads to the beautiful mechanism of length contraction. It leads to a deeper understanding of why time slows with motion and in gravity. It also provides a clear explanation of why there cannot be a twin paradox.
This new understanding of time linking it with the expansion of space may have been already confirmed by the discovery that the universal expansion appears to be accelerating. If time is indeed related to the expansion of space and our time is slowing down then as we make measurements of light emitted by distant supernova (when time was faster) we will be measuring their frequency changes from our slower time. This will give an illusion that the universal expansion is accelerating. Similarly the pioneer anomaly can be explained by slowing of our time during the period the signal travels from earth to pioneer space craft and back. These predictions are not based on any exotic phenomenon but on Einstein’s relativity and can be easily tested. This new approach in understanding of time, motion, and gravity could bring about a revolution in physics.
Is the universal expansion really accelerating? Or time itself is slowing down?
Recently measurements of light emanating from supernovas in distant galaxies have indicated that universal expansion is accelerating.
The concept that time is related to expansion of space however gives a different interpretation. If we consider that time is due to expansion of space then our local time is the slowest as compared to that of distant objects when the expansion of the universe was faster.
Once we take this factor into account then the relative blue shifting of light from distant supernovas as compared to their luminosity only indicates that time was faster in the past as compared to our time now. As our local time slows in comparison to the past distant time the universal expansion will appear to become faster. This however is an illusion due to measurement of the universal expansion from our slower time and indicates the opposite that the universal expansion is actually slowing down.
Recently (December 2007) Professor José Senovilla, Marc Mars and Raül Vera of the University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, and University of Salamanca, Spain have suggested a similar explanation for the observed accelerated expansion.
Presence of motion is the most obvious way time is perceived. Normally we do not think of forces as part of time. Once we incorporate forces into our definition of time the solution to arrow of time becomes feasible. The direction of arrow of time is due to presence of forces with a statistical touch to it .
Pure motion can be bidirectional. However forces create work against a gradient. Objects fall in gravity. Heat is applied to boil a kettle, liquids mix, heat dissipates, and batteries lose charge.
The symmetry of time (T-symmetry) can be understood by a simple analogy: if time were perfectly symmetric then it would be possible to watch a movie taken of real events and everything that happens in the movie would seem realistic whether it was played forwards or backwards.
For example, a movie showing a cup falling off a table seems realistic when run forwards, but seems unrealistic if run backwards. On the other hand, a movie of the planets orbiting the sun would look equally realistic run forwards or backwards; either way the orbital motions would appear to conform to physical laws.
Events requiring a force to produce an action has a strong sense of direction.
Suppose I pick up a rock and throw it and see it fall. Now why I do not ever see a rock suddenly bounce off the ground fly up in the air and land in my hand which is waiting open to suddenly grasp it. That does not happen as there is no force gradient in the reverse direction. The movie of planet orbiting the sun looks realistic if run forward or backward as there is no force gradient involved in the different frames of the movie in either direction.
A hammer smashing a cup of tea to pieces is a cause. While cup of tea spontaneously assembling into a cup and pushing up the hammer is not cause and effect. This sequence we have learnt by experience that forces produce effects and effects do not usually produce a force.
For cup pieces to assemble into a cup is to expect forces to work against a gradient and motion to reverse without a cause.

Summary
Our perception of passage of time makes us see the arrow of time. Arrow assumes that two points one in future and one in past exists. If we discard that concept and say only present exists then the arrow collapses to a point and the question why we do not remember the future but remember the past becomes redundant. For arrow to exist you will have to believe in the block universe where past present and future all exist.
Forces are also part of time and give time its perceived direction. There is also a statistical touch to this argument. Smashing a china with a hammer means application of force at one point while to assemble the china back in reverse would require application of multiple tiny forces in reverse in a coordinated and continuous manner which is statistically unlikely. Similarly a stone thrown into a pond produces ripples
which then travel to the edge of the pond. To reverse this would require application of multiple tiny forces at the edge of the pond to produce multiple synchronised waves moving backward to push the stone back up to the hand of the thrower a statistical impossibility.
What are the consequences of this new way of understanding the universe?
1. Accelerating expansion of the universe is an illusion if we take into account that time is related to expansion of the universe. Our
present time is the slowest. Compared to our present time (now) time would be faster in the past as the expansion of space was faster at that time. Looking into distant past with telescopes we are actually looking at an era of faster time. We should see relative blue shifting of frequencies more then we would expect.
2. Black holes cannot have singularity. Once expansion of space approaches zero in the center of the black hole time approaches zero.
There is no further increase in gravity at this point as there in no further increase in time differential. Gravity being time differential.
3. Moving objects move in a time differential. This information can be used to experimentally prove the concept that time is related to expansion of space is correct.
4. Space is elastic. Galaxies stars and planets do not leave a dent in space when they move on. Space just springs back up. There is no need for an extra mass to stop the expansion of the universe. Elasticity of space will stop the expansion.
5. Time travel is not possible as there is no passage of time and past and future do not exist.
6. Gravity is a weak but long distance force which is mediated through time differential. It is produced by minute time differences in space caused by different rates of expansion. The internal atomic motion of the atoms is converted into external linear motion when placed in the time differential.
7. There may be a way of tapping into zero point energy and using concept of time differential to produce propulsion mechanism for
travel. Tapping into zero point energy in the front of the spaceship and pumping it back towards the back end of the space ship will create the time differential. The space ship may move without feeling an acceleration. There will be no gain in mass as no external force was needed to accelerate.
8. There is no past or future only present is real. Passage of time creates the illusion of an arrow because of the way forces act. Forces being part of time.
9. Inertia. Initially space resists motion. Force used to overcome this resistance increases the mass of the body which is set into motion.
Time differential is set up when a body starts moving which then perpetuates the motion. This explains the initial resistance and later perpetual motion.
10. Centrifugal force is explained. Objects are moving due to time differential which works at the level of atoms. There is no action at distance.
11 There is no twin paradox as in moving objects slowing of time is real and motion curves space.
12. Length contraction: Moving objects curve space. This explains length contraction, perpetual motion and inertia, as well as slowing of time.
13. Moving objects drag light so the simultaneity is preserved. This information is well known and the effect is seen as photon
acceleration mostly in laser and plasma research. This information can used to set up an experiment to prove this concept.
14. Major consequences for the origin of the universe.
15. Negative gravity predicted in contracting universe

Philosophy In A Cup Of Tea
Next time you stir a cup of tea adding a spoon of sugar or some sweetener; try to comprehend that the swirling motion of the tea is due to the expansion of the universe and the stretching of the space. Let us not stop there. As you sit in the garden sipping the cup and see the leaves falling lazily in the breeze all that is happenings around you all the motion and the commotion are caused by the expanding space in the universe. So is the action of your lips, your breath, your heartbeats, and the vision which brings forth all the beauty of the spectacular summer afternoon tantalizing your thought processes. If you believe that your heart and soul is in the grasp of the creator and His hands are stretching the space as the hands of puppet master tugging at the strings, you may be not far from the truth.

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